By Walgak Chuol Bel
[dropcap]O[/dropcap]pinion – The great people of South Sudan have been subjected to a great devastative civil war as of the failure of the PLM leaderships in managing their disagreement on the reform agenda within the party level in conjunction to their disagreement on the party convention.
The factors which had accelerated the disagreement among the SPSLM leaders were the gross violations of constitution which were witnessed through unlawful removal of elected governors of Lakes and Bentiu States without following the legal frame work which was laydown in the constitutions when an elected governor is removed.
However, the dissolution of cabinets on 23th July 2013 by dictator Salva Kiir to get rid of politicians who were vocal on his bad governance policy-dictatorship and its gross violations constituted the political momentum against the regime.
The gross violations of the constitution had led to the successful unity of purpose of some seniors leaders who were in different SPLM political camps (Deputy Chairperson of SPLM Dr Riek, GS Pagan Amum and Madam Rebecca ) to form a one political group to face their common political rival, the Salva Kiir group, which comprised of some seniors SPLM leaders and formers seniors National Congress Party of Khartoum.
Although the unity of purpose of SPLM leaders to get rid of the dictatorship regime was betrayed and weakened by the position of former political detainee of forming a third bloc by refused to join Resistant movement to continued waging political war to get of dictatorship after SPLM/A IO campaign for their release. Nevertheless, the resistant against the dictatorship by those SPLM factional groups were not betrayed.
The dissolution of SPLM party structures by presidential decree constituted the base of violation of the party bylaw and its guiding principle, this granted a point of rupture of SPLM leadership.
These actions of party dissolutions by dictator Salva Kiir had enabled the seniors SPLM leaders, who were not participating seriously in the SPLM convention campaign and reform agenda to take a bold decision of joining hands with Dr Machar, Pagan and Mama Rebecca, emerged as group under the unity of purpose and successful held Dec 6th 2013 Juba conference to enlighten the general public about SPLM crisis.
Although the SPLM situations seem manageable, this has not been the case due the great mistrust among the SPLM leaders induced by their political difference. The Dec 8 2013 conference, by dictator Salva Kiir group, had incited the mass by quoting “the bitter splits”, the 1991.
Its constitutional and political rights for any person to express his or her willingness and readiness to contest political post in his or her party but those who were blaming Dr Riek for declaring his candidacy for SPLM chairmanship against dictator Salva Kiir were not only bias in their sense but also had attempted to deprive Dr Riek Machar of his political rights.
Why blaming only Dr Riek, not Pagan Amum and Mama Rebecca, who had equally declared their interest to challenges Salva Kiir in party convention?
I see it as unfair claims. Those who were blaming Dr Riek on his decision to challenges Salva Kiir in convention should blame first the constitution of South Sudan and party bylaw which give rights to any member of a party to contest as his or her wish.
Dictator Salva Kiir had plunged our beloved people and the country in to such a huge crisis while he has no single plan to revert his own created war due to the lack of reverse gears and instead he has chosen the path of war.
While the world leaders choose peace for people of South Sudan which is why they had joined hands to helps the South Sudanese citizens to get out of their own mess, but so surprisingly, the South Sudanese leaders notably Juba faction are still doing the oppose and resisting the peaceful mean to end the current conflicts, which was settled in August by signed a peace deal.
Why it’s so difficult for South Sudanese leaders specially the SPLM in Government to accept the peaceful mean of ending the conflict? Should be a resistant to justice and accountability that were put forth by the CPA-2? Should this be the refusal of CPA-2 for designated Dr Riek as first Vice president?
Should this be a resistant against the CPA-2 for giving the two oil rich states to SPLM-IO? Or should it be resistant against the demilitarization of Juba?
Dictator Salva Kiir refused to ink the peace deal on the stipulated dateline by the mediators and asked for two more weeks to further consults with his inner circle, a call that deserve criticism and condemnation since he knows that he was coming to sign a peace deal, but he did not see any sanction as per the warning on missing dateline.
Due to maximum pressure mounted on his Juba regime by the international community and the IGAD-Plus then dictator Salva Kiir changed his mind and apprehended his signature in Juba, which was not even an officially recognized peace mediation venue, which was not even challenged although it deserve condemnation. With this violation he has not seen a serious condemnation and then he continues his way of doing things.
Although people were not informed officially by IGAD-plus as to why dictator Salva Kiir was unable to apprehend his signature in Addis Ababa, people appreciate his decision to sign even though it was late.
His refusal to sign the peace deal in Addis Ababa made me so suspicious on his seriousness toward peace and I try gave a different versions. Some people were saying that Salva Kiir failed to come to Addis Ababa to sign peace deal due to pressure within his government from anti peace elements such as Makuei Lueth and Malong Awan. I have different insight on this.
But I have been viewing dictator Salva Kiir’s absent from Addis Ababa to add his signature as lack of seriousness and commitment for peace. However, I am seeing the Salva kiir’s signature in Juba as way of pursued by some IGAD members countries, which is nothing but an attempt to help him against the looming sanctions.
As lack of serious commitment for peace deal, dictator Salva Kiir during his signing of CPA-2, he said that the peace documents is neither a bible nor Quran, and it should be open for negotiation and with this remark the world leaders and IGAD-plus did not took him seriously, the he continues his business as usual.
Although he signed, he attached observation lists. If the world accepted this, then it would be Salva Kiir’s offer to opposition as take or of leave it, then this need total rejection.
I strongly believed that Salva Kiir would not have apprehended his signature had it not been an enough pressure from the mediators and powerful peace actors.
Salva Kiir was not ready for peace that was why he refused to signed the peace deal on the dateline, the 17th of August and he had refused to come to Addis Ababa to have added his signature, but IGAD-plus beg him to apprehended his signature in Juba without justification.
This IGAD-plus approach has made Salva Kiir something else. Salva Kiir would have been ordered to come to Addis Ababa and failure to attend Addis Ababa summit would amount to sanctions. But the world is not handling this issues of South Sudan with serious and commitment.
Dictator Salva Kiir had killed thousands South Sudanese Nuer, but he had stand a chance for being not condemned globally although the genocide happened in the international city-Juba where very nation has global present. The dictator that the world be come toothless and can not get rid of him as have now connected his regime with China and Russia. What is China and Russia to the wester?
The recent decision of 28 states creation is business as usual and it should not be taken in isolation or an as exceptional case. Therefore, its the same anti peace spirits which was seen from his refusal to sign the peace as per official dateline on 17th of August and the same reason which did not come to Addis Ababa to apprehend his signature on official peace deal venue. Still IGAD-plus and the world are taking silent path. This kinds peace violation by Juba regime deserves serious confrontation and condemnations across the regional and international perspective.
The motive behind 28 states creation is not only mean to kills the recent signed international peace deal which amount to a serious violation but also a declaration of the war to add more suffering and creating more orphans by prolong over the implementation.
Salva Kiir’s peace delegation refused to talks about the federalism during the peace negotiation in Addis Ababa citing the lack of resources and that it should not be imposed on people; mean that it should be done through the referendum exercise to give citizens a right to choose.
The world leaders and IGAD plus in particular should ask Juba regime with the following questions. When did the South Sudanese held a referendum to decide on federal system as mean of governance system in South Sudan? Where did Juba get the resource to implement the federal system, which they were against citing the lack of resources for implementation? Why did Juba refused initially during the negation table to talks about federal system?
The policy had created more states for Dinka, a one-ethnicity people group, a mean to rally Dinka ethnic people group behind his flaw policy.
Instead of more states to Dinka ethnic people group, the policy have awarded and created the Dinka ethnic people group oil and gas states, to own national resources that suppose to be used to development the nation at large.
There is no base as to why Dinka ethnic people group are getting more states over others ethnicities in the countries but I can concluded that this move is a part of the “usual tribalism practice” in the dictator Salva Kiir lead government.
The policy had created and awarded few states for others ethnicities, a motive to rally them behind the regime and to abandon the rebellion. This is a part of divide and rule policy. South Sudanese people were not fighting the regime to get more states instead of their own freedom and democracy which they have been robbed of by JCE and dictator Salva Kiir.
People of South Sudan need peace more than newly created 28 states; dictator Salva Kiir need to be correctly told this is a fact.
Might be dictator Salva Kiir was wrongly informed that the people of South Sudan need more states more than peace itself and that if he created more states for them then they would abandon the rebellion.
But there is a good reason and cause for people of South Sudan rise up against the dictatorship regime that should not be abandon with fake states creations.
If no peace under his regime, how do people abandon the rights of defending themselves against imposed war? Will more states bring peace really? Will the management of more states be much easier than the former ten states?
South Sudanese people need only peace, then they think dictator Salva Kiir would bring peace because they need peace than more states.
Dictator Salva Kiir should stop the ongoing devastating the civil war by ordering the permanent ceasefires; stop his troops from attacking army opposition military base and stop killing of civilians in Equatoria regions, then creating more states in which some of them remain at large.
How will he governance those states that are fully and partially under the control of SPLM/A in opposition and how will those states under opposition come in to his course?
Juba regime is not interesting in bringing peace to the South Sudanese people who need peace utmost but thinking of wining the war militarily, a nightmare dream would prefer it.
The failure of international community to condemn initials has made dictator Salva Kiir hopeful there the human right is dead and he can not be dispose military, therefore The lack of serious action against dictator Salva Kiir has made him world crazy one.
Recommendation and Conclusions
Call on IGAD plus, UN, US and EU to condemn dictator Salva Kiir’s violation of CPA-2 and call for sanction in failure to revoke his decision and fully implement the peace.
Call on South Sudanese to priority and embrace peace and to condemn this destructive policy.
Call on regional and international community to condemn the resumption of fighting in greater Upper Nile region and sanction those who will be found responsible on the attacks.
Call on South Sudanese to choose freedom over the path of dictatorship
Call for immediate withdrawal of Ugandan and others foreign troops fighting on dictator Salva Kiir side.
Call on IGAD-plus to reject Salva Kiir’s reservation list.
Call on Western to accompany the serial dictator Salva Kiir up to gate of hell since he had made himself an obstacle for South Sudanese peace implementation.
Call on UN to relocated South Sudan IDPs to secure places either in South Sudan or neighboring countries.
The author is a South Sudanese citizen and student in India and can be reached at email@example.com